Android开发深入理解多线程AsyncTask

释放双眼,带上耳机,听听看~!

在开发Android时,我们经常会遇到后台耗时太长的操作,需要在用户界面上实时显示后台操作,下面就让技术狗小编和你分享深入理解多线程AsyncTask,希望对你学习有帮助!

Understanding AsyncTaskAsyncTask是Android 1.5 Cubake加入的用于实现异步操作的一个类,在此之前只能用Java SE库中的Thread来实现多线程异步,AsyncTask是Android平台自己的异步工具,融入了Android平台的特性,让异步操作更加的安全,方便和实用。实质上它也是对Java SE库中Thread的一个封装,加上了平台相关的特性,所以对于所有的多线程异步都强烈推荐使用AsyncTask,因为它考虑,也融入了Android平台的特性,更加的安全和高效。
AsyncTask可以方便的执行异步操作(doInBackground),又能方便的与主线程进行通信,它本身又有良好的封装性,可以进行取消操作(cancel())。关于AsyncTask的使用,文档说的很明白,下面直接上实例。
实例
这个实例用AsyncTask到网络上下载图片,同时显示进度,下载完图片更新UI。

package com.hilton.effectiveandroid.concurrent;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
import android.app.Activity;
import android.content.Context;
import android.graphics.Bitmap;
import android.graphics.BitmapFactory;
import android.os.AsyncTask;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.SystemClock;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.ImageView;
import android.widget.ProgressBar;
import com.hilton.effectiveandroid.R;
/*
 * AsyncTask cannot be reused, i.e. if you have executed one AsyncTask, you must discard it, you cannot execute it again.
 * If you try to execute an executed AsyncTask, you will get "java.lang.IllegalStateException: Cannot execute task: the task is already running"
 * In this demo, if you click "get the image" button twice at any time, you will receive "IllegalStateException".
 * About cancellation:
 * You can call AsyncTask#cancel() at any time during AsyncTask executing, but the result is onPostExecute() is not called after
 * doInBackground() finishes, which means doInBackground() is not stopped. AsyncTask#isCancelled() returns true after cancel() getting
 * called, so if you want to really cancel the task, i.e. stop doInBackground(), you must check the return value of isCancelled() in
 * doInBackground, when there are loops in doInBackground in particular.
 * This is the same to Java threading, in which is no effective way to stop a running thread, only way to do is set a flag to thread, and check
 * the flag every time in Thread#run(), if flag is set, run() aborts.
 */
public class AsyncTaskDemoActivity extends Activity {
    private static final String ImageUrl = "http://i1.cqnews.net/sports/attachement/jpg/site82/2011-10-01/2960950278670008721.jpg";
    private ProgressBar mProgressBar;
    private ImageView mImageView;
    private Button mGetImage;
    private Button mAbort;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle icicle) {
 super.onCreate(icicle);
 setContentView(R.layout.async_task_demo_activity);
 mProgressBar = (ProgressBar) findViewById(R.id.async_task_progress);
 mImageView = (ImageView) findViewById(R.id.async_task_displayer);
 final ImageLoader loader = new ImageLoader();
 mGetImage = (Button) findViewById(R.id.async_task_get_image);
 mGetImage.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
     public void onClick(View v) {
  loader.execute(ImageUrl);
     }
 });
 mAbort = (Button) findViewById(R.id.asyc_task_abort);
 mAbort.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
     public void onClick(View v) {
  loader.cancel(true);
     }
 });
 mAbort.setEnabled(false);
    }

    private class ImageLoader extends AsyncTask<String, Integer, Bitmap> {
 private static final String TAG = "ImageLoader";
 @Override
 protected void onPreExecute() {
     // Initialize progress and image
     mGetImage.setEnabled(false);
     mAbort.setEnabled(true);
     mProgressBar.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
     mProgressBar.setProgress(0);
     mImageView.setImageResource(R.drawable.icon);
 }

 @Override
 protected Bitmap doInBackground(String... url) {
     /*
      * Fucking ridiculous thing happened here, to use any Internet connections, either via HttpURLConnection
      * or HttpClient, you must declare INTERNET permission in AndroidManifest.xml. Otherwise you will get
      * "UnknownHostException" when connecting or other tcp/ip/http exceptions rather than "SecurityException"
      * which tells you need to declare INTERNET permission.
      */
     try {
  URL u;
  HttpURLConnection conn = null;
  InputStream in = null;
  OutputStream out = null;
  final String filename = "local_temp_image";
  try {
      u = new URL(url[0]);
      conn = (HttpURLConnection) u.openConnection();
      conn.setDoInput(true);
      conn.setDoOutput(false);
      conn.setConnectTimeout(20 * 1000);
      in = conn.getInputStream();
      out = openFileOutput(filename, Context.MODE_PRIVATE);
      byte[] buf = new byte[8196];
      int seg = 0;
      final long total = conn.getContentLength();
      long current = 0;
      /*
       * Without checking isCancelled(), the loop continues until reading whole image done, i.e. the progress
       * continues go up to 100. But onPostExecute() will not be called.
       * By checking isCancelled(), we can stop immediately, i.e. progress stops immediately when cancel() is called.
       */
      while (!isCancelled() && (seg = in.read(buf)) != -1) {
   out.write(buf, 0, seg);
   current += seg;
   int progress = (int) ((float) current / (float) total * 100f);
   publishProgress(progress);
   SystemClock.sleep(1000);
      }
  } finally {
      if (conn != null) {
   conn.disconnect();
      }
      if (in != null) {
   in.close();
      }
      if (out != null) {
   out.close();
      }
  }
  return BitmapFactory.decodeFile(getFileStreamPath(filename).getAbsolutePath());
     } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
  e.printStackTrace();
     } catch (IOException e) {
  e.printStackTrace();
     }
     return null;
 }

 @Override
 protected void onProgressUpdate(Integer... progress) {
     mProgressBar.setProgress(progress[0]);
 }

 @Override
 protected void onPostExecute(Bitmap image) {
     if (image != null) {
  mImageView.setImageBitmap(image);
     }
     mProgressBar.setProgress(100);
     mProgressBar.setVisibility(View.GONE);
     mAbort.setEnabled(false);
 }
    }
}

 

运行结果

先后顺序分别是下载前,下载中和下载后
总结

关于怎么使用看文档和这个例子就够了,下面说下,使用时的注意事项:
1. AsyncTask对象不可重复使用,也就是说一个AsyncTask对象只能execute()一次,否则会有异常抛出”java.lang.IllegalStateException: Cannot execute task: the task is already running”

2. 在doInBackground()中要检查isCancelled()的返回值,如果你的异步任务是可以取消的话。
cancel()仅仅是给AsyncTask对象设置了一个标识位,当调用了cancel()后,发生的事情只有:AsyncTask对象的标识位变了,和doInBackground()执行完成后,onPostExecute()不会被回调了,而doInBackground()和onProgressUpdate()还是会继续执行直到doInBackground()结束。所以要在doInBackground()中不断的检查isCancellled()的返回值,当其返回true时就停止执行,特别是有循环的时候。如上面的例子,如果把读取数据的isCancelled()检查去掉,图片还是会下载,进度也一直会走,只是最后图片不会放到UI上(因为onPostExecute()没被回调)!

这里的原因其实很好理解,想想Java SE的Thread吧,是没有方法将其直接Cacncel掉的,那些线程取消也无非就是给线程设置标识位,然后在run()方法中不断的检查标识而已。

3. 如果要在应用程序中使用网络,一定不要忘记在AndroidManifest中声明INTERNET权限,否则会报出很诡异的异常信息,比如上面的例子,如果把INTERNET权限拿掉会抛出”UnknownHostException”。刚开始很疑惑,因为模拟器是可以正常上网的,后来Google了下才发现原来是没权限,但是疑问还是没有消除,既然没有声明网络权限,为什么不直接提示无网络权限呢?

对比Java SE的Thread
Thread是非常原始的类,它只有一个run()方法,一旦开始,无法停止,它仅适合于一个非常独立的异步任务,也即不需要与主线程交互,对于其他情况,比如需要取消或与主线程交互,都需添加额外的代码来实现,并且还要注意同步的问题。
而AsyncTask是封装好了的,可以直接拿来用,如果你仅执行独立的异步任务,可以仅实现doInBackground()。
所以,当有一个非常独立的任务时,可以考虑使用Thread,其他时候,尽可能的用AsyncTask。

以上就是技术狗小编为各位朋友们总结的深入理解多线程AsyncTask,各位朋友们对于上面的内容还算满意吗?

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